Republic of Jeongmi
Dae Jeongmi Minguk
An Eternal Clear Wind
Anthem: Spring in My Hometown - "고향의 봄"
Location of Jeongmi (dark green)
- in the Sinju Union (green)
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||Resan|
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|17 September 313 CE|
|12 April 1811|
• 2020 estimate
• 2015 census
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
|$9.241 trillion (1st)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
|$9.534 trillion (1st)|
• Per capita
|Currency||Sinju won (圓) ((圓洲神))|
|Time zone||UTCnot observed (UCT+0)|
Jeongmi, officially the Republic of Jeongmi (Jeongmian:
Jeongmi was inhabited over a million years ago during the Lower Paleolithic by homo erectus. The first civilization was the Byeongju civilization, which arose in the Seorye River Valley. Beginning in the 5th century BCE, massive migrations of Jeongmic peoples with horses and iron weaponry came to largely displace the existing Fusenic population of the area. The kingdom of Gojeongmi was a Jeongmic state that arose out of the migrations and eventually collapsed into several states, many of which came under the control of Cheonje during the 3rd century CE. In 703, Yanggeose led a rebellion against Cheonje that led to the independence of eastern Jeongmi.
Jeongmi entered into the tributary system of relations of Cheonje, and remained a vassal state with de-facto independence for hundreds of years. Even after the collapse of Cheonje, Cheonje culture remained extremely influential in the country, its philosophy defining much of Jeongmi's politics for the next thousand years. Significant land expansion first occurred during the Kim dynasty, with state expansion into the north and south from its base in the Seorye River Valley and West Jeongmi. The island of Yeoseo was incorporated after the defeat of the Kingdom of Anre Gabo War in 1604. It was beginning in the 1400s that Jeongmi first began to expand overseas into new territories outside of Sinju, and the country became the largest empire in human history. Jeongmi was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution, the process of industrialization generally dated to begin in the mid-late 18th century under the Choe dynasty. In 1801, the Emperor was forced to resign in a coup that was the Jeongmian Revolution, with an oligarchy set up under the leadership of An Gung-muk, who became the first President of Jeongmi in 1809. The decades following the Great Eulhae War saw a process of decolonization as the weakened Jeongmian state found itself incapable of being able to maintain control in its colonies as well as strong internal and external pressure against colonialism.
Today, Jeongmi is a major economic power governed as a unitary constitutional republic. Jeongmi has been a major power with strong cultural, economic, military, and political influence in the region and around the world. With the sixth-highest Human Development Index, exceptional healthcare standards, and the fifth highest per-capita income globally, Jeongmi has one of the highest standards of living in Sinju, as well as the largest economy in the world. Spanning an area of over three million square kilometers, Jeongmi is one of the largest nations in the world. With its immense size, Jeongmi's diverse landscape includes alpine mountain ranges, subtropical forests, and forest steppes, and is home to a large variety of wildlife. It is one of the most visited countries in the world, receiving around 65 million visitors annually. A globally leading information society, Jeongmi has the world's fastest Internet connection speed, high ownership of computers, and the world's highest penetration of smartphones.
The name Jeongmi with the characters 淨美 was first used in old Cheonje records to describe the Gojeongmi, thought to be a transliteration of proto-Jeongmian, although the true etymology is unknown. Go (古), meaning "ancient", distinguishes it from current Jeongmi. The name remained in common usage following the collapse of Gojeongmi in the 5th century BCE, its use continuing while a tributary state of Cheonje, and it was adopted as the official name of the Jeongmi with the establishment of the Kim dynasty in 1110 CE.
Evidence shows that Jeongmi has inhabited by Homo erectus over a million years ago. A number of sites have been found, which record the use of stone tools and fire. The earliest evidence of settlement by Homo sapiens is dated to roughly 36,000 BCE. Early permanent settlements existed among fishing communities along the east coast and the islands, living in caves, under the shelter of overhanging rock, or built structures on level ground. These communities acquired food through hunting, gathering, and fishing in designated areas, and family status was passed down through a matrilineal line of descent. Communities were located so as to take advantage of sunlight and near sources of fresh water frequented by game animals.
The Neolithic age can be traced to around 3,000 BCE, when millet was domesticated and cultivated in the south. Along with agriculture arrived increases in population, and the area began to establish itself as a cultural center. Rice also appears to have made its way to Jeongmi by at least 1,000 BCE. Neolithic Jeongmians lived primarily in pit dwellings, usually dug in a circular or roughly squarish form, with posts then set up to support a covering of straw thatch.
Bronze implements made their way to Jeongmi by 1000 BCE, although did not come into widespread use until about the 600 BCE. Bronze-age Jeongmi was a stratified society, and metal tools and decorations were limited to and served as status symbols of the elite.
The first known complex civilization in Jeongmi was the Byeongju civilization, which flourished in the highlands and then western coast of southern Jeongmi from the 14th century BCE to the 8th century BCE. The first known city in Jeongmi, Seora, was constructed here in the 14th century BCE. Later settlements show archaeological evidence of silk textiles, with the domesticated silkworm having arrived in Jeongmi in the 9th century BCE. Soil erosion, a prolonged drought, and a massive earthquake in the 8th century BCE all helped to end this civilization.
The iron age came to Jeongmi during the 5th century BCE with the large-scale migration of Jeongmic peoples from East Yoju and Yedal, who on boats brought with them horses in addition to iron tools and weaponry, displacing the previously largely Fusenic population of the peninsula. While numerous Jeongmic-ruled polities arose during this period, the most notable was the state of Gojeongmi in East Jeongmi, which was a confederation born out of the various walled towns of Jeongmi set up or conquered by the newly-arrived Jeongmic peoples. The king was said to have descended from heaven, a claim of divine origins that enhanced the dignity and authority of his political leadership. With the introduction of sophisticated and advanced farming tools such as iron hoes, plowshares, and sickles, the iron age in Jeongmi saw marked increases in food production compared to the bronze age, as well as increased wealth divisions and social stratification.
The first century BCE saw the collapse of Gojeongmi into numerous small states which regularly vied with each other for power. It was during this period that writing first saw widespread usage throughout Jeongmi, having been introduced from Central Sinju near the end of the late Gojeongmi period.
The states of southern Jeongmi came under the control of Cheonje. Southern Jeongmi's inclusion into Cheonje saw the introduction of civil service exams, Buddhism, and Confucian ideology. However, the north maintained its independence and northern polities regularly engaged in war with or raided Cheonje.
Beginning in the 500s, there was a large internal migration within Jeongmi to West Jeongmi following innovations in irrigation and the development of rice varieties able to grow in drier climates. A rebellion waged by Yanggeose led to the establishment of an independent kingdom in East Jeongmi in 703, which after independence soon began paying tribute to the Cheonje emperor.
Following the collapse of Cheonje, Jeongmi saw the influx of a large number of Cheonje nobles. Jeongmi adopted many of these nobles into its bureaucracy and declared itself the natural successor of the empire.
In 969, following numerous famines, a great rise in the price of rice, and heavy taxation on farmers, the Great Rice Rebellion broke out. Unemployed soldiers and farmers formed at first bands and then massive armies, setting the stage for an armed conflict between them and government forces. Although it was ultimately crushed by imperial forces, it set the stage for numerous other rebellions to start, and the country eventually fell once more into disunity.
By 1091, Lee Song-heon had united the country and established the short-lived Lee dynasty, moving the capital to Hapcheon. His wife, the Empress Taejo, a member of the powerful Kim family, established the Kim dynasty following his death in 1110 CE. The later Kim period saw the expansion of the empire overseas.
Under the Kim, Jeongmian technology and culture entered a golden age. Poetry, literature, and music flourished, as did philosophy. During the 13th century, the state began to issue its own paper money, although heavy inflation made for a temporary return to coins under Emperor Yong-gu.
The Kim dynasty saw a lengthy union between Jeongmi and Meisaan after Jeongmi invaded and established control in 1212. The era had a profound impact upon Jeongmian culture and society.
In the later stages of the Kim Dynasty, the country began to stagnate, and corruption had become a massive problem. Emperors would disregard their duties, and eunuchs would wield massive power, with constant power struggles in the imperial court. In 1679, a coup by general Choe Geon resulted in the establishment of the Choe dynasty.
The Choe dynasty continued Jeongmi's overseas military expansions in the hope of acquiring greater riches and expanding Confucian civilization, and oversaw a great political transformation beginning in 1712, when Emperor Wanjeong, under the influence of Kim Seok-hoe, established the Voting Acquisition Exam due to the growing number of disaffected intellectuals who failed the imperial examinations. The people who could not obtain the limited number of government positions due to failing the test would occasionally begin riots and small-scale rebellions, stating that the grading was unfair and corrupt; corruption and nepotism were indeed highly prevalent in Jeongmi's imperial examination system.
Jeongmi's first elections were set up for minor local positions, but the creation of the exam and elections proved highly controversial. The exams and elections were discontinued following Wanjeong's death in 1726, and all elected officials were temporarily removed from office. They were continued beginning in 1752.
During the 18th century, the Jeongmi-led Industrial Revolution transformed the country, and and helped to fuel the growing Jeongmian Empire. Seeking new markets in which to sell Jeongmian goods as well as to reduce global competition, Jeongmi began to engage in various wars with faraway nations.
Beginning in the 1790s, Jeongmi began to experience a series of harsh winters and poor harvests. In 1801, deep dissatisfaction with the monarchy and living conditions in Jeongmi were coupled with arguments of the illegitimacy of the dynasty, and the Emperor was forced to resign his position. Due to being unable to find a suitable descendant of the Kim dynasty to reign as emperor, the elite established an oligarchy.
Republic of Jeongmi
The Republic of Jeongmi oversaw the continued rapid economic growth of Jeongmi that had begun during the late 18th-century. By 1809, An Gung-muk, a seo-eol born to a low-ranking yangban family, had eliminated most of his political rivals and emerged as the unquestioned leader of Jeongmi, and in 1811 he created the position of President of Jeongmi for himself, claiming that there were no longer any legitimate contestants for the throne of Jeongmi. He retained most of the existing government structures present in Jeongmi, but reorganized the law code into a written constitution and changed the content of civil service examinations in order to support himself and his political allies.
An extended the rights of those who passed the Voting Acquisition Exam to allow for the election of local officials who would represent their hometowns and home provinces in government, and expanded Jeongmi's existing proto-welfare state. In 1812, he made education compulsory, despite widespread opposition by both much of the ruling class and among peasants. Although he retired in 1819, placing his protégé Nam Du-hui in power, he indirectly held most power until his death in 1826.
Following his death, his supporters split into two camps, and in 1829 the first transfer of power occurred from Nam's Eastern Faction to the Western Faction after a vote in the newly empowered Jungchuwon.
The nation was committed towards what it saw as its civilizing mission, proposing to contribute to the spread of Sinju civilization through interventions and colonization. Movements for greater freedom in the colonies were often suppressed, in fear that ideas such as democracy and nationalism in the colonies were a threat to the security of Jeongmi. Alongside Jeongmi's formal empire, the country's military and economic dominance also secured itself an informal empire, and Jeongmi effectively controlled the economies of many independent nations.
In 1882, the position of president was made one that was directly elected by those eligible to vote. In 1884, Kim Ganghui of the Democratic Party became the first popularly elected president of Jeongmi. In 1899, women were allowed to take lower level civil service examinations, as well the Voting Acquisition Exam. By 1908, women were allowed to take all exams, and in 1917 suffrage was granted to all those above the age of 25.
During the 1930s, Jeongmi became involved in the Eulhae War. The huge expenses incurred from the war, alongside the increasing view that the possession of colonies was immoral, led to the gradual independence of all of Jeongmi's colonies.
The postwar period saw a great expansion of Jeongmi's welfare state under Democratic presidents. The 1980s saw a significant relaxation of immigration laws, and with greater ease of movement due to advances in technology and cheaper flights, millions of immigrants were prompted to move to Jeongmi, many from former colonies.
Jeongmi is largely located on the Jeongmian peninsula and the island of Yeoseo, and is entirely located between the latitudes of 27° and 58°N. Its total area is 3,826,440 square kilometers, making it the largest country in the world by area. The largely peninsular nation is flanked to the east by the East Jeongmi Sea, to the west by the Blabla Sea, and to the north by the North Ocean. About 53 percent of Jeongmi is forested, mountainous, and unsuitable for agricultural, industrial, or residential use, especially in West Jeongmi. As a result, habitable zones such as the Hapcheon Capital Area have extremely high population densities. North Jeongmi and Yeoseo are comparatively flat and feature many vast, open plains.
The highest point in Jeongmi is at Mt. Taebaek in the Soran Plateau in Jagyeong province, with an altitude of 3,410 meters. Many of East and West Jeongmi's major rivers originate in the Soran Plateau, including the Seorye River.
The climate of Jeongmi, although predominantly temperate, varies greatly from north to south. North Jeongmi has a more oceanic climate and receives more rain; Suyeon is the rainiest city with over 100,000 people in Jeongmi. Northwest winter winds bring heavy snowfall. West Jeongmi is comparatively drier to the rest of the country, and enjoys greater amounts of yearly sunshine. However, the area can sometimes experience extremely hot temperatures due to the foehn wind, colloquially referred to as the Miryang winds.
The provinces of Yeoui and Chungju in southern East Jeongmi feature a largely humid subtropical climate with mild winters and only occasional snowfall. Inland regions have a typical inland humid continental climate, with large temperature differences between summer and winter, and between day and night; precipitation is light, though winters are usually snowy.
Flora and fauna
A large network of national parks has been established to preserve and protect important areas of wildlife and and plant life. Cold coniferous forests predominate the northern part of the country, being home to animals such as moose and Jeongmian tigers.
Government and politics
The Republic of Jeongmi is a unitary constitutional republic with strong democratic traditions. Suffrage is universal, equal, and secret for all citizens aged twenty and over. Permanent residents and citizens under the age of twenty may vote if they pass the Voting Acquisition Exam, available every November for those who pay a small fee, although the fee may be waived for those who are low-income.
The President of Jeongmi is both the head of state and head of government of Jeongmi. The president is directly elected by the general populace using a single transferable vote system to five-year terms, and is prevented from serving three consecutive terms. The President possesses the ability to veto a bill; prior to 1897, these vetoes could not be overridden, but can be overridden with a two-thirds majority in both houses of the legislature. However, the president lacks the power to dissolve the legislature.
The Prime Minister of Jeongmi, who is appointed by the president, serves minor functions such as recommending the appointment and dismissal of ministers, and takes over when the President is incapacitated. Many former or incumbent Prime Ministers have often run for the presidency after serving under a popular president.
Legislative power is vested in the bicameral Jungchuwon. The lower house, the Junguiwon, has half of its 640 seats directly elected and half of its members elected through proportional representation. The upper house, the Gwijogwon, is directly elected, but only those who have passed a high-level civil service exam may run. General elections are held every five years alongside the presidential election.
Legislation must be introduced by one of the houses of the Jungchuwon, and must be approved with a majority vote by both houses.
Local governments are semi-autonomous, and their powers are granted by the national government. The largest parties in Jeongmi are the Democratic Party, the Conservative Party, the Reform Party, and the Labor Party. The four parties together hold 632 of the 640 seats in the Junguiwon.
Jeongmi uses an Ullyeong law system. The Supreme Court of Jeongmi is the final instance in all civil and criminal cases in Jeongmi. The Supreme Court consists of eleven judges who are appointed by the government, who serve until mandatory retirement at the age of 70. The Chief Justice is appointed by the President, and may serve until the age of 75. The country enjoys low levels of burglary, bribe-seeking, and car theft.
The death penalty was abolished in Jeongmi in 1972.
The armed forces of Jeongmi are comprised of three separate professional branches: the Jeongmian Army, Navy, and the Air Force. The President of Jeongmi holds the title of commander-in-chief and appoints the Minister of Defense. Jeongmi maintains an all-volunteer military, having given up conscription in 1958. In 2013, Jeongmi spent $238 billion on its military expenditures, the largest in the world.
The Jeongmian Armed Forces have historically played a major role in acquiring colonies and establishing Jeongmi as a global world power. Even following the loss of its empire, Jeongmi has remained a major military force throughout the world. Jeongmi is a recognized nuclear power and maintains one of the largest nuclear stockpiles in the world.
Jeongmi maintains diplomatic relations with over 190 countries, and is a founding member of the Congress of Nations. Almost all nations have embassies in Hapcheon, and foreign consulates are present all throughout the country. Similarly, nearly all nations hold Jeongmian diplomatic missions.
Jeongmi retains very cordial relations with its neighbors in the Sinju Union.
The government operates an agency devoted to overseas Jeongmians, which runs cultural events overseas and provides services for those who still hold Jeongmian citizenship.
In 2013, Jeongmi was the largest donors of development aid in the world, ahead of Meisaan, Mincang, and Fusen. The organization which manages the aid is the Jeongmi Development Agency, which finances humanitarian projects in developing nations. The main goals of this help are "developing infrastructure, access to health care and education, the implementation of appropriate economic policies and the consolidation of the rule of justice and democracy".
The economy of Jeongmi is the largest in Tiandi both nominally and by PPP. It has a developed and mixed economy, equipped with a skilled labor force, excellent internal and external communications, and a modern distribution system. The country enjoys high technological development in many fields, including consumer electronics, automobile manufacturing, semiconductor manufacturing, optical fibers, optoelectronics, optical media, facsimile and copy machines, and fermentation processes in food and biochemistry. Poverty is low, with around one in twenty in Jeongmian people living in poverty. The Hapcheon Stock Exchange stands as the largest in the world by market capitalization.
The Jeongmian economy is an example of a mixed economy, being a large and prosperous capitalist welfare state featuring both a combination of free market activity as well as large state ownership is certain sectors. Jeongmi's egalitarian values however, generally ensure that the wage difference between the average worker and the CEO of most companies is much lower than those of most other countries.
Jeongmi's economy features many large conglomerations known as jaebeol; while it is prestigious to work for them, they are also a symbol of elitism, decadence, and corruption. Business leaders and politicians often have ties to each other, and large companies will often have lobbyists present in government to ensure their interests. While wealth disparity is increasing, it is not to the extent of some other developed countries.
In September 2012, the Jeongmian labor force consisted of 62.1 million people. With 7.6 million people, government is the leading field of employment. The largest private employer is Hyeondae, a massive jaebeol which largely specializes in electronic consumer goods such as smartphones, PCs, tablets, televisions, and video games. There are heavy criticisms that the massive conglomeration shuts down competition in the sectors that it competes in. 31% of workers are unionized, and Jeongmi's unemployment rate is low at 4.3%.
Historically, Jeongmi has been an important producer of agricultural products, and although in 2012 the agri-food industry accounted for less than 1% of Jeongmi's GDP, it still is in the modern day. Modern technology, abundant tracts of fertile land, as well as subsidies have all helped to make Jeongmi one of the world's largest producers and among the largest exporters of agricultural products. Jeongmi's agriculture sector is also highly subsidized and protected, with government regulations favoring small-scale cultivation and agricultural diversification.
Animal breeding takes place mostly in North and West Jeongmi, with a large amount of ranches in the drier southwest. Meat production in 2011 totaled 8,732,000 tons. Jeongmi also ranks as one of the highest in terms of fish caught, with 8.1 million tons in 2005, although this number has been gradually decreasing since the 1980's. Jeongmi also has greatly advanced the techniques of aquaculture or sea farming. In this system, artificial insemination and hatching techniques are used to breed fish and shellfish, which are then released into rivers or seas. These fish and shellfish are caught after they grow bigger. Salmon is raised this way.
Government policy emphasizes conservation and the development of renewable sources, such as solar, wind, biomass, water, and geothermal power. As a result of energy saving measures, energy efficiency (the amount of energy required to produce a unit of gross domestic product) has been improving since the beginning of the 1970s. The government has set the goal of meeting all the country's energy demands from alternative energy by 2050.
Jeongmi has many cities of high cultural interest such as Hapcheon, Dosan, Daegu, and Haeju. The construction and prevalence of high-speed lightning trains in Jeongmi also means that it is possible to visit numerous tourist destinations in a short period of time. Jeongmi is also home to many beaches and seaside resorts, ski resorts, and rural regions that many enjoy for their beauty and tranquillity (green tourism). Small and picturesque Jeongmian villages of quality heritage are promoted through the association the Most Beautiful Villages of Jeongmi.
Domestic tourism remains an important part of tourist spending in Jeongmi, with the busiest period being the winter months when students are on break.
Most transportation in Jeongmi is done by mass transit, which is publicly encouraged by the government for everyone to use. The government maintains a high-speed rail service called the Goseokcheoldo, which connects major cities and is known for its safety and punctuality. The Goseokcheoldo maintains international connections to highs-speed to cities in Meisaan such as Minghoi. Differing government-owned corporations run separate Goseokcheoldo lines and trains in differing commuting regions, and government legislation ensures that usage is both easy and cheap with ticket subsidies for passengers.
Bicycles are a common sight, and they are very visible in rural areas and small towns. A few of the busiest roads have a toll, and Jeongmi has left-hand traffic. Ferry services and ships operate regularly between the mainland and Yeoseo. The Northern Tunnel also connects the mainland and Yeoseo through rail service.
Modern trams and light rail have been increasingly readopted in major Jeongmian cities since the 1990s, and today most major cities such as Hapcheon, Dosan, and Yongin all possess them.
There is approximately 2,474,926 kilometers of serviceable roadway in Jeongmi, one of the largest in the world. Musical roads are common, and are both attract tourists as well as to help motorists stay awake as well as to watch their driving speeds. Intercontinental traffic is common, with roads being connected to major cities in nations such as Meisaan.
There are 2,159 airports in Jeongmi, and the largest, Hapcheon International Airport, is the continent's busiest airport. The Port of Hapcheon is the country's both largest and busiest port, accounting for 4% of Jeongmi's trade value. Several major airlines such as Jeongmi Airlines service tens of millions of passengers each year, while smaller ones allow for domestic travel with cheaper fare.
Science and technology
Jeongmi is and has historically been a leading nation in scientific research and progress. Jeongmi leads the world in the publication of scientific research papers and impact factor, and over two million scientists share a $470 billion research and development budget, the highest in the world. Jeongmian scientists have international awards in physics, chemistry, and medicine.
The Jeongmi Aerospace Research Institute (JARI) is Jeongmi's space agency, conducting space, planetary, and aviation research, and leading in the development of satellites and rockets. It works closely with other space agencies. During the 20th century, it sent manned missions to space, and currently it plans on the creation of a moon base by 2027.
Jeongmi was the origin of various inventions such as the steam engine and telephone. In the latter half of the 20th century, Jeongmian firms popularized personal computers and introduced the portable music player, revolutionizing how music was heard.
In September of 2014, 86% of households had at least one computer, and 91% had broadband internet service; households without one were largely those consisting of solely elderly individuals. The internet is largely unregulated in Jeongmi, but the government censors websites which contain illegal material such as child pornography. 94% of Jeongmians of adult age possessed a mobile phone in March of 2015.
As of 2015, Jeongmi has over 109 million people, making it the seventh most populated nation on the planet. Censuses occur every decade, with the latest having occurred in 2010. The population of Jeongmi nearly doubled during the 20th century, from about 53 million in 1900 to 101 million in 2000. About 49.8% of citizens are male and 50.2% female.
Most economic and cultural activity in Jeongmi is centred around major population centres such as Hapcheon, Dosan, Daegu, and Haeju. There are several score cities in Jeongmi with permanent populations of at least one million.
In 2014, Jeongmi's life expectancy was 84.7 years. Like other postindustrial nations, however, Jeongmi has had to deal with an aging population. Since the 1990s, Jeongmi's death rate has continuously exceeded its birth rate. Jeongmi's fertility rate of 1.93 per woman is well below replacement rate, although the number has increased in the past decade with the passage of progressive laws related to parental leave, educational expenses, and women in the workforce. Previously, it had reached a low of 1.62 in 1998. In 2009, 16.4% of the population was over the age of 65, compared to 10.1% in 1991. The number is expected to exceed 30% by 2050.
The number of ethnic Jeongmians has fallen, making up 96.58 percent of the population in 1980 compared to only 90.13 percent in 2010. Fertility, also a factor, has contributed in the decline of the percentage of ethnic Jeongmians, with the average Jeongmian woman giving birth to only 1.76 children in her lifetime, compared to 2.32 for the average immigrant woman in the country. Of the mixed race population in Jeongmi, over 93% of them have Jeongmian heritage.
A rising and noticeable problem in recent years has been rural flight. The average age of those living in rural ages continues to rise, and many farmers find it hard to find wives within Jeongmi, causing to search for wives in other countries.
|Largest cities of Jeongmi |
Ministry of Internal Affairs
|Rank||City name||Province||Pop.||Rank||City name||Province||Pop.|
Free education is guaranteed to all citizens under the age of twenty-one in the Jeongmian Constitution.
Competition is fierce in Jeongmi when it comes to education - the vast majority of students either attend private academies following immediately after public school hours end or hire private tutors to enhance their chances at entering a top university. The relative lack of social interaction and intense competition among students results in a high suicide rate among secondary school students. The difficulty of entering top Jeongmian universities also means that many decide to study overseas at high-ranking foreign universities, which some perceive as easier to get into, especially for students from wealthier families.
Over 90% of Jeongmian high school graduates attend college, and 68% of Jeongmians between the ages of 25-34 have at least a bachelor's degree, a much higher percentage than in other developed countries.
Pre-school education has been completely free since 1973, and parents are encouraged to send their kids to pre-schools. Due to their high take-up rate, pre-schooling is generally considered a normal part of schooling in Jeongmi despite it being optional.
The school year starts after winter break (different from province to province, usually early/mid March), and it divided into two semesters. There are typically 10 weeks of holidays in addition to public holidays. Exact dates differ between states, but there are generally 6 weeks of winter and two weeks of summer break. The other holiday periods are given in spring and autumn. Schools can also schedule three or four special days off per term.
Meals at school are offered freely. In 2013, spending on education amounted to 8.3% of the GDP. The government provides university students with cheap housing, although costs are generally higher for foreign students. The basic literacy rate is estimated to be well over 99% for those over the age of 15. By 2011, digital textbooks were successfully distributed to every primary, middle, and high school within the country.
Families whose children are at risk for low academic achievement may be visited by trained professionals. They offer a wide variety of services that relate to each child's and each family's background and needs. Such professionals may visit pregnant low-income women and talk with them about positive health-related behaviors, such as following a healthy diet or refraining from the use of alcohol or tobacco while pregnant. Positive health-related behavior may have a major impact on children's school performance.
The percentage of foreign born nationals has been growing rapidly in recent years, especially with the gradual loosening of immigration laws from the 1980s. Society as a whole mostly encourages assimilation into Jeongmian culture, but there are also groups who support having Jeongmi be a multicultural society. Immigrants tend to suffer from social discrimination, which has been acknowledged by the government. Most immigration tends to be from neighboring states and former colonies.
The official figure of 10.9 million foreign residents excludes illegal immigrants, whose numbers are more difficult to determine. The number of illegal immigrants is estimated to be around 1.1 million, overwhelmingly through staying past visa expirations.
Naturalized citizens have access to all the same benefits which other Jeongmian citizens have access to. Permanent residents have access to Jeongmi's universal healthcare system. Jeongmi allows for limited multiple citizenship on the condition that those with multiple citizenship do not exercise any other nationality while in Jeongmi.
The traditional religion of Jeongmi is Sindo, a shamanistic, polytheistic, and animistic religion native to Jeongmi and related to other Danic indigenous belief systems. Sindo shamans faced intense persecution from the beginning of the Kim dynasty until the late 18th century. Sindo saw a revival during the 19th and 20th centuries as nationalists saw the religion as a pure expression of the Jeongmian spirit and sought to separate what they believed were introduced, non-native elements.
Historically, outside of religious specialists, Jeongmians had no religious affiliation, and the indigenous Sindo religion was heavily syncretized with introduced belief systems such as Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism.
Today, the majority of Jeongmians are neither spiritual nor religious, and this number continues to increase. Religious festivals and celebrations see a high rate of participation, even among those who profess not to be religious for cultural and ceremonial reasons. Many traditionally religious holidays have seen significant commercialization and secularization. On the census, only those who affiliate themselves with a formal religious organization or with one non-secular belief system to the exclusion of others are counted as religious. Foreign religions such as Abrahamism are generally practiced by immigrant communities.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rate of prevalence at the end of 2006 was less than 0.1 percent.
Health insurance is provided freely by the national government for all residents with either citizenship or permanent resident status. There are around 304 residents for every doctor in the country, as well as 3.24 physicians for every 1000 residents. Patients remain mostly free to choose physicians or facilities of their choice.
Jeongmi has a very low obesity rate of just 3.1%, and this is generally attributed to the healthy traditional diet as well as popular exercise habits shown by most adults. Like other countries, however, Jeongmi has also been seeing recent increases in obesity and being overweight. In 2008, roughly 16.2% of the population was overweight, up from 12.3% in 1992. According to a survey in 2006, 22% of Jeongmian people are smokers, with a prevalence much higher among men than women.
Jeongmi was affected considerably by the influence of Cheonje during the 1st millennium CE, and it was through the influence of Cheonje that first led to the creation of the Ministry of Rites, which dealt with cultural affairs. For much of its history, the Ministry of Rites had an immense influence on cultural expressions at the elite level. The country has always promoted the arts, and has historically been a famous center for cultural creation. In 1928, a separate Ministry of Culture was formed out of the Ministry of Rites, and has worked to protect Jeongmi's cultural heritage and to make it available to the public, running the most important cultural sites in the country. The ministry today is given a healthy amount of funding, and subsidies are often granted to artists and musicians.
The industrialization and urbanization of Jeongmi beginning from the mid-1700s has profoundly changed the ways in which the Jeongmi people live.
There is a long tradition of various visual art forms in Jeongmi, ranging from ceramics, painting, calligraphy, and flower-arranging.
Painting styles during the late Kim dynasty moved towards increased realism. A national painting style of landscapes called "true view" began – moving from the traditional Cheonje style of idealized general landscapes to particular locations exactly rendered. While not photographic, the style was academic enough to become established and supported as a standardized style in Jeongmian painting.
Kkotkkoji, the Jeongmian variety of flower arrangement, remains a popular art to this day. It evolved in Jeongmi after the introduction of Buddhism and Confucianism in the country. The art is both shown on television and taught in schools as part of normal art classes.
Jeongmian music dates back to the dawn of Jeongmian civilization, and archaeological evidence shows a well-developed musical culture as early as by by 900 BCE. Songs were frequently performed in Sindo rituals such as gut (ritual). Cheonje influence during the first millennium CE led to the introduction of several new instruments such as the gayageum and the bipa, as well as new styles of music such as Buddhist chants and beompae.
In 551 CE, the Royal Music Bureau was created by Seora.
During the 20th century, Jeongmi's advancements in the elecronics industry allowed for the nation's musicians to pioneer in electronic music, and much of Jeongmi's modern popular music incorporates electronic beats or backgrounds.
Among current musical events and institutions in Jeongmi, many are dedicated to traditional music and operas. Some of the most prestigious of these institutions include the state-owned National Opera and National Hapcheon Theater.
Popular Jeongmian music is a highly commercial industry widely present throughout the world. Among the most popular contemporary pop artists are music dance groups featuring young entertainers with the latest looks and dance skills. Hip hop, dance and ballad oriented acts have become dominant in Jeongmian popular music. Contemporary Jeongmian music and pop stars such as Jeong Ji-eun and Choe Da-hye are very popular and well known across globally.
Jeongmi today has the largest music market in the world, with a retail value of $2.5 billion in 2015, with total industry revenue at about $25 billion, with about $6 billion originating from Jeongmi.
The first written records in Jeongmi appear in 300 BCE in the form of Cheonje characters. The creation of Jeonggeul in 1122 was a major development in Jeongmi's literary history, allowing for the first time for people to write down stories, essays, and papers in a simple way that accurately represented the sounds of the language and worked with its grammar. It allowed for literacy to become more widespread, especially among women, who were often denied the opportunity to learn the more prestigious Cheonje language.
The early Kim dynasty was an era when much of Jeongmi spoke several different languages and dialects. Many early works written in Jeonggeul were written in areas far from the capital, and even within areas close to the capital, different modes of spelling prevailed.
The following centuries saw the increasing use of vernacular script, but until the 19th century, the use of Jeonggeul remained largely limited to women and toward writing lower-class fiction and technical works, whereas most works of poetry and other artistic forms of literature continued to be written in the Cheonje language.
Early Jeongmian philosophy was dominated by schools of thought which had been developed and influential in Cheonje. Jeongmian philosophers contributed some of the most influential texts of the 18th century.
Jeongmian cuisine, jeongmi yori (정미요리; 淨美料理), or jeongsik (정식; 淨食), has evolved through centuries of social and political change. There are many significant regional dishes that have proliferated in different variations across the country in the present day. The Jeongmian royal court cuisine once brought all of the unique regional specialties together for the royal family. Meals consumed both by the royal family and ordinary Jeongmian citizens have been regulated by a unique culture of etiquette. The emperors of medieval Jeongmi were known to hold massive banquets with well over a hundred meals being served at a time, employing vast amounts of both imperial kitchen staff as well as concubines to prepare and serve the food.
Jeongmian cuisine is largely based on rice, noodles, tofu, vegetables, fish and meats. Traditional Jeongmian meals are noted for the number of side dishes, banchan (반찬), which accompany steam-cooked short-grain rice. Every meal is accompanied by numerous banchan. Kimchi (김치), a fermented, usually spicy vegetable dish is commonly served at every meal and is one of the best known Jeongmian dishes. Due to its rarity, the high value of livestock, as well as Buddhist influences, meat was traditionally served only on rare occasions, although meat consumption has risen greatly since Jeongmi's industrialization.
Jeongmian cuisine usually involves heavy seasoning with sesame oil, doenjang (된장), a type of fermented soybean paste, soy sauce, salt, garlic, ginger, and gochujang (고추장), a hot pepper paste. Another well-known dish is Tteokbokki (떡볶이); a spicy snack consisting of rice cake seasoned with gochujang or a spicy chili paste. Soups are also a common part of a Jeongmian meal and are served as part of the main course rather than at the beginning or the end of the meal. Soups known as guk (국) are often made with meats, shellfish and vegetables. Similar to guk, tang (탕; 湯) has less water, and is more often served in restaurants. Another type is jjigae (찌개), a stew that is typically heavily seasoned with chili pepper and served boiling hot.
Due to the country's immense size, ingredients and dishes often vary wildly by province. The dishes most commonly seen as Jeongmian food is generally present in the cuisine of East Jeongmi. West Jeongmi has less precipitation and has a greater focus on spices and garlic than other regions in the nation. Increased mobility, the decline of family farms, and the rise of major food corporations within the past hundred years however, have meant that Jeongmian cuisine has grown more heterogeneous overall.
The period since the end of the Eulhae War has seen the rise of fast food and the introduction of cuisines from immigrant groups. Today, it is possible to find foods from global cuisines all over Jeongmi, especially in major cities such as Hapcheon and Dosan. Vendors selling Nochtlican and Jeongno cuisine can be found in virtually every city. Considered by many to be a fusion Nochtlican-Jeongmian dish, norissam has become one of the world's most widely recognized and consumed foods.
Jeongmian architecture, examples for which can be found from over 2,000 years ago, has long been a hallmark of the culture, regardless of specific region or use. Jeongmian architecture has traditionally been typified by wooden structures, elevated slightly off the ground to protect against rain and flooding. Peasants would live in houses with thatched roofs, while wealthier and educated people would have tiled ones. Sliding doors were used in place of walls, allowing the internal configuration of a space to be customized to different occasions. People usually sat on cushions or otherwise on the floor, traditionally; chairs and high tables were not widely used until the 19th century.
The early Seora kingdom was known for its many temples and shrines dedicated to a numerous amount of deities, many of which were later converted into Buddhist temples. Although none have survived, they left a large influence on the architecture of the area, particularly for the later Buddhist temples which still dot Jeongmi everywhere today. Due to records, however, it is possible to obtain a good picture of what they looked like.
Fashion norms have changed greatly from decade to decade in Jeongmi. Certain professionals, such as bankers and lawyers, traditionally dress formally for work, and some occasions, such as weddings, funerals, dances, and some parties, typically call for formal wear.
The relatively large disposable income available to Jeongmian youth has been significant in recent deacdes. In addition, the emergence of a strong youth culture in the 1960s and 1970s that continues today drives much of the striving for new and different looks. The rise of consumerism to an important part of the "national character" of Jeongmi during the post-war economic boom also contributes to the pursuit of fashion. These factors result in swift turnover and variability in styles popular at any one time.